Jumat, 05 Maret 2010



By: Ir. Dian Kusumanto

Is Ir. Prihyono Purwanto, MM., A senior fellow alumni of the Faculty of Agriculture Brawijaya University of Malang, sepenanggungan kinship with the author. He also ended up stranded in the city of Gandrung Banyuwangi, East Java. Only difference, the author carried away again and drifted Divine fate and destiny to the Border City, City Transit, the workers, namely in Nunukan Kaltim.

Mr. Pur, as usual, he was called, is very intense in the development of organic fertilizer in Banyuwangi. Gait he also inspired a businessman who eventually total descent applying full organic farming in a village in Lumajang there. Mr. Pur writings have also enriched the understanding of the writer of this organic fertilizer. Written below most mencuplik also from his writings that could be sent via e-mail a few years ago.

To understand the concept of ideal soil fertility, we start with the concept of the land itself. Land, according to the concept of basic composition consists of several integrated parts of a holistic, mutually influence each hook as one complete system which can not be separated as to the nature and specific features of the specifics. Basic soil composition includes water, air, minerals and organic materials.

The parts of the land in question is, water and air which occupies portions of 25% and 25%. Water and air occupy the portion of 50% of the total volume of soil. The next is the mineral portion to reach 45% and sektar organic material with portions of 5%. This composition is ideal for the land portion primarily for agricultural cultivation. This proportion can be said is the basis for the concept of soil fertility was reached ideal situation for the development of plants.

Each component such as water, air, minerals and organic material has a unique role and can not replace each other. This means its existence is an absolute must have, so that the functions and roles on the land system. Example, water is needed as a medium for the body's metabolic activities of plants with complex functions. Besides the function in the ground water is a medium nutrient and oxygen carriers that can be absorbed by plants and microbes in organic material.

While the air is also an essential factor for plant and life on the ground as part of the metabolic system of living things in the soil are also complex. The air is a space meant for Oxygen, CO2 and other gases are in the cycle in the metabolism of living things in the soil.

The minerals are part of the reserves of nutrients, due to the mineralization process will become nutrient elements are ready to be absorbed by plants and other life in the soil. Minerals form and maintain stable soil structure that is not easy to change the composition of its components by the influence of the changes and movements in the ground. Soil structure will also support the plant and give space for the roots of living plants and other living creatures in the soil.

The smallest part of the compilers of the soil is organic matter. However a small proportion of the number (except Organosol), it is the key for the continuity of the dynamics of life in the soil, or it can be said of organic materials (BO) is the key to the dynamics of soil fertility. Organic materials is the key for the dynamic soil properties can be managed to the ideal conditions for plants.

Soil fertility indicators

Soil fertility can be measured based on several indicators of soil fertility. Several soil fertility indicators commonly used by soil scientists include: absorption capacity, the level of base saturation, clay content and organic matter content. Next will be described below.

Absorption capacity is calculated by milli equivalent, is the soil's ability to bind / draw a cation by the particles land kolloid (kolloid particles consisted of clay and organic), and this directly reflects the ability to perform activities of soil nutrients in the form of exchange of cations. The higher value of absorption capacity, soil fertility is said the better, which is usually dominated by the arrangement of elements kationnya K (Potassium), Ca (Calcium) and Mg (magnesium), so the normal soil pH values (range 6.5).

Base saturation, its value in the form of per cent, reflecting the accumulation of cation arrangement. Percent increase in base saturation values reflect the higher content of bases on the soil pH value of the land position which causes the value of the optimal chemical fertility as a whole. Values in a simple chemical fertility dicermnkan by pH value, because the pH value will be able to influence and reflect the chemical activity and biological activities and physical conditions in the soil.

Content of clay, is the size of the particle content of the soil kolloid. Particles of this size (kolloid) will have a surface area and high pore space that has too high absorption capacity and the ability to exchange followed by high kolloid also among the particles. This absorption capability can be used for water and nutrients, so a mirror increase soil fertility. But if the clay content in the composition of the high-dominant or a less than ideal for the cultivation and processing of land. High content of clay causes percolation, inlfiltrasi, permeability, aeration is lower ground which has hindered the circulation of water and air.

Organic materials as the key to soil fertility dynamics

Gynecology BO is the most important indicators and the key dynamics of soil fertility. Organic material has a multifunctional role, is able to change the physical properties, chemical and biological soil properties. Addition of organic material also could contribute to activate the compounds generated from the dynamics as ZPT (growth regulator substances), the source of the enzyme (catalytic reactions in the metabolism of compounds of life) and Biocide (drug and disease pest exterminator from organic materials).

Said organic materials can change the soil physical properties, because the physical condition of the hard soil / clay (solid) will be transformed into loose soil by the presence of organic materials. As a result soil porosity and permeability, the better so that increased air aeration, is useful to avoid the saturation of water which causes root rot.

Similarly, if the opposite, namely a loose soil conditions (very sandy), then the physical land can be made into a compact, because the aggregation increased by the presence of organic materials. Soil pore space also increased, resulting in the ability of the soil store water and provide air space will be more proportional (good). This ni useful to avoid drought stress in roots.

Organic materials can also change soil chemical properties, namely through the process of decomposition by microbes that are always attached to the organic material. The process of decomposition will release substances into the solution of nutrients in the soil and organic matter also makes a more simple form and is kolloid. This condition will increase the absorption capacity is also related to soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) of land due to the increased surface area of soil particles. This makes the soil has the ability to save the elements of the better nutrients, reducing the evaporation of nitrogen, and nutrient-nutrient laundering other cations. In the mean time also increases the capacity of soil to release nutrient cations for the needs of plants, either through an exchange process directly or passively by the diffusion process.

Organic materials are also able to eliminate toxic materials, especially those dakibatkan by micro cations such as Co (Cobalt), Cu (Cuprum / copper), B (Boron), and others; with khellat bond. This khellat bond preventive (from poison effects) and conservative, because any time katio-terjerap metal cations in khelat bonds also can be utilized by plants. Some even say that the bond is khelat actually increase the mobility of many cations, because the bonds are soluble ni making it easier for plants to use it.

Organic materials can change the nature of the soil biology by increasing microbial populations in soil. Increased microbial population (both type and quantity) dynamics of soil will cause the better and become healthier naturally. Increased microbial (especially fungal bermiselia like micorhiza, etc.) will increase the stability of aggregation of the particles making up ground. Microbes and miselianya, which form the threads, will serve as a knitter / adhesive / glue between soil particles. Thus causing the soil structure to be better because erodibilitas pressure resistance (destruction) of land. The ability to change the nature of the soil biology to the positive direction so that the increasing population of beneficial microbes that plants grow healthy crops without artificial fertilizers intervention and pesticides.

Organic materials also serves as ZPT, because the decomposition process will result in the end become humus. Humus also called humat acids (humic acid) which is a material that is kolloidal terpolidispersi amorphous, yellow-brown to black and has a relatively high molecular weight and bervariatif. Humat acid is associated with many bji germination in the soil, the top growth of plants, the elongation of young seedlings or roots from the root elongation of truncated in vitro, because humat acid showed a hormonal influence on growth. Humat acids also play a role in improving soil physical, through the mechanism of aggregation repair, aeration, permeability and water holding capacity, so the plants will grow in a normal and healthy.

Organic materials is one of the compilers of the ground with kolloid properties, and only one who has the ability to influence mendinamisasi physical properties, chemical and biological soil. Marginal lands (both land and the dominant mineral liatnya) will be repaired or solid nature of porositasnya at optimal levels. Similarly, permeability, aeration, percolation and aggregation, with the dynamic role of the BO, the terrain becomes loose and fertile. This is related to menegemen water and air in the soil, beneficial for the survival and development of plant roots on the plant nutrients in the soil. With the development of plant roots will affect the top of the plant above the ground.

With a carrying capacity of the optimum soil fertility will be normal plant growth, healthy and productive. So the appropriate fertilization treatment fertility concepts above will lead to effective fertilization, so the plants become productive and lead to more efficient and cost-efficient on the cost and use of labor. With fertile soil so plants will grow in a healthy, high production and live longer with a longer life. So when the fertile land of farmers will prosper and prosper.

Therefore we must go back to the right path, the path to the ideal soil fertility with the concept of fertility in accordance with nature's own soil. SIMO concept is the concept towards an ideal soil fertility to the soil layers deeper so that the sugar plant roots or whatever, can thrive and maximum results. However, this concept will continue to be improved and developed to perfection later.

The habit of using chemical fertilizers and toxic chemicals is excessive path or how the people who lost, who do not understand the basic concept of sustainable soil fertility. So it's time we return to the right path by always using organic fertilizers and forgo the use of chemical fertilizers and toxic overload. With enough organic fertilizer in the right way then it will be satisfying and make maximum production increased farmer income.

Is time independent and prosperous farmer! Hail sugar!!

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