Jumat, 05 Maret 2010



By: Dian Kusumanto

Is a businessman from Surabaya, Mr. Jhon Lee (42) is very interested in business or agribusiness Aren. He is very enthusiastic and respektif the prospects for the future Aren Indonesia. As entrepreneurs, many views are progressive in order to build a business as a business Aren very promising.

One of the crucial aspects (key factor) in business development for Sugar Sugar is how to handle post-harvest sap Aren. As we know, Nira Sugar is the main result of the Palm trees that will be processed for various products, primarily processed into sugar. Quality is determining the quality of sap from sugar. Nira high quality will be key to this effort Palm Sugar.

Palm Sugar is the main product of the most profitable of Aren palm processing. Sugar produced from the sap tapping or slicing fruit bunches bunches of male or female from Aren tree. Aren eavesdroppers usually do wiretapping and capture as much Nira 2 (two) times a day, at morning and Soren day. On the morning of sap collected between the hours of 5 to 7 am. Meanwhile, if taken Nira afternoon at about 5 AM to 7 PM.

To be processed into sugar, the juice should be berkualtas Aren good, taste sweet and does not change the nature. Aren Nira usually change very quickly become sour because the fermentation process has occurred. The process of fermentation began to happen at Nira out of Palm tree stems are cut or the other.

Nira which contain foods or nutritional substances are very high, potentially very popular and bring microbial fungi or bacteria in the form of their surroundings. After Nira trickled in and out of bunches of flowers, sap directly related to the free air outside the incision. Nira then would trickle down or brush with container container sap. If the air and the reservoir container Nira already exists in the form of microbial fermentative fungi, the fermentation began.

Like other living creatures, microbes in the form of the fungus will multiply rapidly if their needs are met, ie adequate food in the form of Nira, Air / Oxygen (O2), the appropriate temperature, and the absence of factors inhibiting its growth and development, the fungus will be overhaul Nira sugar content of the fresh juice is fermented into a faster and cause the sap to turn into more and more sour or bitter or aromatic alcohol.

Nira is a highly nutritious food because it has a water content of 75 - 90K total solids of 15 -19.7% which includes sucrose content of 12.3 -17.4%, reducing sugars 0.5 -1%, protein 0.23 -- ash 0.32% and 0.11 to 0.41% (Child, 1974). Characteristics of sap is 84.4% water, 14.35% carbohydrates (mainly sucrose), 0.66% ash, 0.11% protein, 0.17% fat and 0.31% other (Anon, 1989). While Gautara and Wijandi (1972) stated that fresh coconut juice contains sugar as much as 14 -15%, 8 - 21% of which is sucrose.
Nira therefore highly favored by all kinds of bacteria / microbes / micro-organism that causes damage and changes in the properties of these Nira.

As for the types of bacteria that can grow on the sap is:
• Bacillus subtillis,
• Baterium aceti, which is also Escherichia Micrococcus species,
• Sachromo bacterium,
• Flavobakterium,
• Leuconostoc mesenteroides,
• L. dextranicum, a bacteria that causes the formation of mucus,
• Lactobacillus Plantarum,
• Sarcina of the genus Pediococcus,
• Acetobacter (Frazier, 1958: 76; Pederson, 1971).

There are two species of yeast that can grow on coconut palm juice but that is the main yeast in the fermentation process sap is: Saccharomyces cereviciae and
Carlbergensis Saccharomyces alcoholophila var.
The second is the yeast Saccharomyces main terebut in sap Yeast fermentation process can grow and multiply at pH 4,4-4,6 and temperature 21-25 ° C (Prescott, 1949). Nutrients needed by the genus Saccharomyces is C, H, 0, N, S, P, Mg, Fe, Ca. Other studies say that the yeast can grow at 4-4.5 pH with temperature 25-30 ° C (Frazier, 1958; Wiyono, 1981)

The speed of fermentation occurs in Nira will cause sap to sugar quality is declining, due partly dismantled by the enzyme Sugar produced from the fermentation process into acid and alcohol. This incident led to Nira Aren sour (sour) and a little bitter. The longer the fermentation process is happening, the more acid is formed, the more sugar reform occurs, it means less sugar, so the number pH (acidity) lower.

Sap coming out of bunches of flowers usually have Aren acidity values between 6.5 to 7 (neutral). Fermentation process that occurs in Nira Nira can cause the pH down from that number. Some sugar factories that process still receiving Nira Nira from farmers or tolerate the sap until the pH Aren 6. Below pH 6 Nira was considered not good to be processed into sugar with good quality. If sap pH is below 6, it should not be processed into sugar, but can be processed into Nira Bioethanol, Saguer or vinegar. Wine or Block and Cap Tikus is dilah from Nira Aren already fermented.

Therefore, for the entrepreneur who holds Nira Sugar Sugar from the sap tappers penderes or Palm, or from the garden itself, also must anticipate it by providing processing devices which pHnya Nira under 6, the process into Bioethanol Saguer and vinegar. This means that, in addition to investing for sugar processing, as well as well as providing tools for Bioethanol processing, vinegar and Saguer, etc.. This is to anticipate if the if the fermentation process occurs in Nira, and this was bound to happen.

Therefore, if the desired main product is sugar, so avoid handling Nira experiencing rapid fermentation is the key to business Palm Sugar. Thus, the preservation efforts Nira Aren be very important to the quality of sugar produced products can be maximum. If you want a Sugar Organic products, the preservation must also be cultivated in a way and natural materials, instead of chemical preservatives or that are not safe for food.

Organic products increasingly become a trend because it is safe for human health. In addition the value of the product price is also more expensive oganik and smoothly value of high competitive advantage compared to products that are not organic. The accumulation of chemicals in circumstances that consumed the human body will cause health problems later in life.

At the time of body condition did not fit or because of old age the dangers of chemical accumulation in the body is increasingly felt. This is undesirable if we want to live healthy and long life. So the expensive price of food products are organic is reasonable because there is an investment for our own health. These health costs are only felt when we experience pain or suffering from an illness. Whatever the price of medicines, therapy and medication costs that we will be free of pain as if it does not matter. Naturally, if food is safe and healthful appreciated more expensive.

There are some efforts to maintain good quality of sap still held as at the time of sap coming out of a wounded tree network, which taste sweet, fresh and memorable nature distinctive aroma. To find a picture of how to maintain quality, we should first try to trace, since when the change occurred sap quality.

First, efforts to reduce the contact between the juice with the air around since after the sap out of the bunches Aren tree. In addition to carrying oxygen air, the air is also a vector that carries a variety of microbes that scattered in the wild. Various microbes are so little carried away by flowing air or wind to move or blow that finally shipped with a variety of microbes from one place to another place.

Especially if it dirty or dusty garden, because of the hot and dry, shrubs and weeds that grow around the Palm trees, or human activity or other animals around the tree. So when the wind blows and the tangent to the new Nira sap that drips or deposited in the container, then Nira be contaminated with various microbial nature.

Circumstances surrounding foliage is unhealthy, dull and mildew resulting from the unaffected trees basuhan rain and direct sun, the garden state terbiarkan never administered or cleaned. If the shelter around the Palm Nira this situation as before, then it might be the greater fermented. This situation will be a vector for microbes to breed. If the air is clean or dirty air contact with the very minimum, the sap will be safer from possible contaminated with various microbes that cause the fermentation. Therefore, this situation should be avoided if a periodic manicured gardens, health and hygiene is maintained gardens and plants.

Second, Nira further out from the incision or bunches of flowers will fall wounded and in contact with the reservoir container or media liaison sap to sap storage container. Nira storage containers are clean and have made efforts disinfektasi or anti-microbial treatment will be able to inhibit Nira fermented.

Therefore, eavesdroppers Nira used to wash the container Aren Nira reservoir with clean water, sometimes even rinse it with hot water, or fumigating the container on the mantel or conduit smoke from the stove / chimney cooking sugar. This simple effort has traditionally been able to prevent the occurrence of fermentation in Aren Nira, Nira be durable so fresh and pH (acid) can be maintained during the collection and transportation to where the sugar is cooking Nira.

Some materials are also traditionally added to inhibit the fermentation in the Nira accommodated in the container camps such as:
1. Skin Mangosteen Fruit (Garcinia mangostana, L.)
2. Leather Tree Mangosteen
3. Fruit skin Langsat / duku (Lansium domesticum)
4. Leather Tree Langsat / duku
5. Wood Wind (Usnea dasypoga)
6. Wood / sap Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)
7. Sap Papaya (Carica papaya) with cysteine
8. Coconut coir (Cocos nucifera)
9. Leather Tree Kosambi (Schleichera oleosa, MERR)
10. Skin stem Laru / Raru or Kawao (Millettia sericea)
11. Bark / roots Nirih (Xylocarpus spp.) Or a type of forest mangosteen (Garcinia)
12. Wood Akar Wangi
13. Stems and leaves skin Api-api (Avicennia germinans)
14. PICUNG chopped fruit or seeds Kluwak (in Java) (Pangium edule Reinw)
15. Lime / limestone / enjet
16. Coconut shell Liquid Smoke.
17. And others are still a lot.

Even some that do preservation by adding preservatives for foods and beverages such as Sodium Acid Metabisulfit or Bensoat, even some that use a banned substance or dangerous such as formaldehyde, or preservatives other prohibited.

Metabisulfit and acid sodium is allowed if Bensoat levels below the specified threshold, but it would be difficult to control, there is a tendency for excessive use of the craftsmen and Nira penderes this. While formalin preservative corpse was not allowed for the preservation of food and beverages.

So when are committed to producing the Organic Palm Sugar-material chemical preservatives should not be added and should be avoided. In other words we can and will make preserving Nira with materials safe organic preservatives and sugar in accordance with the quality we want. Could be because the organic preservatives in addition there pengawetnya materials, also contain other substances that affect smell and taste, texture and flavor sugar-processing results.

Then any preservative that may be used to make durable and Nira sugar results have good quality and have a sense of smell / plavour and tastenya accordance with consumer tastes. Hopefully next article will answer this question. Amen.

1 komentar:

Dwivendu Kumar mengatakan...

Thanks for sharing the important points of view with us. It is really very nice blog which describes how to SAP in sugar industry