Minggu, 26 Oktober 2008
By: Dian Kusumanto
In mid-August 2008 and the author of the Training bioethanol production, which is held by the magazine TRUBUS in Cimanggis Depok. The author met with experts in the field of bioethanol Indonesia, among others: Mr. Arief Yudiarto, Mr. Roy Hendroko, Mr. Ronny Purwadi, Mr. Cecep Sudirman and Mr. Bambang Purnomo. He is all the experts who act as a resource and training the instructors.
Mr. Arief Yudiarto and Mr. Roy Hendroko recognize that the sugar palm is one of the raw materials for bioethanol the most productive. In catatannya mentioned that the sugar palm, which is processed from niranya bioethanol can produce around 25,000 and 40,000 liters / hectare / year. Meanwhile, other commodities lower. Nipah, Coconut and Lontar taken from niranya potential bioethanolnya between 15,000, 10,000 and 8,000 liters / hectare / year. Ubijalar, Sugarcane, Corn, sweet buckwheat, and the productivity of bioethanol Ubikayu have lower among the 7,800, 6,000 and 4,500 liters / hectare / year.
Between Sugarcane and palm sugar
During these raw materials are mostly used for bioethanol is Sugarcane, especially utilizing molases (sugar cane), which is a 'waste' (or more precisely the product side) of sugar cane factory. Sugarcane stem from fresh bioethanol productivity has reached 6,000 liters / hectare / year, while from molasesnya reach 1,000 liters / hectare / year, if dijumlah to about 7,000 liters / hectare / year.
According to Mr. Bambang Purnomo of 100 kg of fresh sugar cane will produce 85 kg of sugarcane roomie (press twice). From 85 kg roomie is obtained 6.6 liters of bioethanol 95% (v / v). If the 1 hectare sugar cane, which, according to Dr. Sunyoto (from P3GI) Melrose, the potential productivity of Sugarcane in 2007 of 82 tons / hectare, the roomie will be as many as 69,700 kg and will be bioethanol as 82000/100 x 6.6 = 5,412 liters / hectare. So the numbers above 6,000 liters is still quite close to 5,412 liters.
Now the problem is the same whether the sugar content of between roomie from the Sugarcane and palm sugar. Because that will be converted into bioethanol from the second roomie is the gulanya, the content of gulanya than necessary. However, we can only count on the take, I mean how the content of bioethanol from roomie. 85 kg roomie Sugarcane can produce 6.6 liters of bioethanol 95% (BE 95), means that approximately 7.7%.
Experience in the South Minahasa roomie palm sugar can mengasilkan went 95 between 6 to 7%, but said that until there is 7.5%. If compared with the roomie Sugarcane almost the same. For example, we take the lowest figure is only 6%. So how many results if we went 95 gardening palm sugar 1 hectare wide in one year? Assumptions, we each day in one of 200 hectares of trees that produce some 100 trees only, with average production roomie 15 liters / day / tree. So the results roomie in one day each hectare is about 1,500 liters / ha / day, it will generate as much as 1,500 liters BE x 6% = 90 liters / day. If calculated a month to 30 days / month x 90 liters / day = 2,700 liters per month, and a year in a 12 x 2700 = 32,400 liters went 95 liters / hectare / year.
Productivity went from sugar palm garden that reaches 32,400 liters is calculated with the assumption that the results of 15 liters roomie / trees / day. If using a number of production roomie 10 liters of sugar palm / trees / day production figures went into its 21,600-liter / ha / year. Meanwhile, if asumsinya roomie palm sugar production, 20 liters / trees / day, the number went from production of sugar palm plantations 1 hectare in the whole year is 43,200 liters BE / hectare / year. We can count its own count how many roomie production from sugar palm plantations will be processed in case we went into all. From experience, who can later set the numbers of course the production went.
So went the results among sehektar land sehektar Sugarcane and sugar palm plantation shares between 5412: 32,400 = 1: 5.98, or 1: 6 (compared to one six). So, if we inculcate a new 6-hectare Sugarcane is comparable with 1 hectare garden palm sugar. Or vice versa if we have 1 hectare of sugar palm plantations will produce bioethanol, which is equivalent to inoculate Sugarcane 6 hectares wide.
Palm sugar and coconut vs. Nypa
How Nypa with Coconut and also as a source of sweetener that can be processed into bioethanol niranya? Nypa is a plant which is a natural gift at the beach or around the brackish waters. Nypa grows wild in their own right in the left side of the river salty succulent, the meeting between fresh water and sea water. However, the problem is the management of Nypa roomie is the difficulty to reach basic Nypa because of the growth of the wild along the river. To collect roomie from tree to tree level of difficulty is very high, because the bog, Nypa population that meeting, many mosquitoes, many crocodiles, etc.. Roomie production per tree per day is also very small, so the job tapping the nira is very difficult, complex, and less practical.
If Coconut still useless for many purposes other food, so that although productivity is high enough to ease such as sugar palm collected almost, not a choice to be processed into bioethanol. Sometimes the consideration is often a factor in the market and kemudahannya process. If the market for fresh coconut is good, why take pains to be processed into bioethanol. If the price of materials for Copra oil is good, why must be processed into bioethanol. So it's a way of thinking may be a pragmatic, realistic and economic might. Thus, sugar palm is more superior and more efficient when compared with other sources of materials for bioethanol.
Processing Technology aspects of bioethanol
From the aspect of technology prossesing his roomie cultivate palm sugar into bioethanol it the most simple equipment with the most minimum. Roomie even when left alone and will have to be alcohol fermentation, which is referred to as bioethanol. Because of the simplest in North Sulawesi, North Sumatra, etc.. is how to cultivate a culture roomie palm sugar or palm wine Cap Tikus was fined for a bioethanol for the fuel industry and the vegetable.
In South Minahasa already from the first epoch, the decline down the roomie utilize to manage a sugar palm bioethanol. By the way, as follows, first roomie palm sugar was tapped for 24 hours, then left for 12-24 hours with bioethanol content is among 6-7%. Then roomie that has been cooked in the fermentation drum and this evaporated ethanol through the Bamboo pipe. From the creeping moisture in this bamboo pipe bioethanol was obtained between on 18 - 70% concentration.
Turnover income of farmers with bioethanol from sugar palm plantation sehektar
If the number of production that is used is 32,400 liters / hectare / year, while the price of bioethanol at Rp 8,000, -/liter went, the turnover income of farmers per hectare / year reached Rp 259,200,000, - (two hundred and fifty-nine million rupiah) per ha / year. If the price of bioethanol reached Rp 10,000, -/liter, the turnover income will reach Rp 324 million / ha / year. Of course, this figure is reduced all types of costs that are required from the management of the gardens, management roomie to be bioethanol, etc.. But perhaps the proportion of 30-45% only, so there is still a net result of around 55-70% of the turnover income was. The net result yet obtained only 50% of farmers are still very good.
Therefore, the Union sugar palm can not only to forget the rights of the poor, poor, weak nation, and anyone who needs help, the amount is still very much in our country is. Its open GARDEN or PLATATION with palm sugar now, about eight to ten years and then we will be able to share with their rights. We do not need anymore as Raden Said to be holigan, ... because we have found Golden Prospect from Kanjeng Sunan Bonang on our sugar palm GARDEN.
How do you think?
By: Dian Kusumanto
Is Mr. Drs. H. Rusfian, MM. Deputy Secretary General of HKTI Center in Jakarta through his SMS he has a determination to coerce the Council and the national sugar palm. He is also optimistic because the sugar palm should get the attention that such a large and because the main advantage. He also agrees with the expression that the sugar palm, which have the prospect of gold JOB PRO, PRO-POOR, PRO-GROWTH & PRO PLANET, he even added the PRO HEALTH.
However appreciation of the development of palm sugar is so often the author received since the inception of this blog kebunaren.blogspot.com. Although much previous writers have tried the sugar palm discourse in this environment is the author of course still very limited. Decisions that can not TRUBUS Magazine as the media, including the author often move to more intensive and more attention to manage information about this sugar palm. Some private institutions, such as the Foundation Masarang, DIVA'S Forward Together, Cooperative Business Solutions Business Like Jaya, and also many other institutions also enliven the National World sugar palm.
About the need to begin the formation of the National Council of palm sugar is based on several considerations, among others:
1. Prospects Agribusiness sugar palm the most promising potential superior compared with other commodities.
2. Commodity palm sugar is in harmony with the various national issues concerning the Food and Energy, because the sugar palm can support the Food Self Sembada through sugar substitutes to the needs, pressures to reduce the use of the land crops from sugar cane-based sugar industry, the potential of niranya that can be processed into biofuel alias bioethanol with higher productivity.
3. Commodity sugar palm, known as the commodities that have been reliable in building the economy in the past in some areas, it is still unreliable in some areas. Main products and other products from sugar palm very closely with economic development, the industry can be managed by the people, handicrafts from all the products can absorb such a large number of workers.
4. In an era where environmental sustainability and the balance of nature to threaten the life of the planet, then there is immediately deemed necessary restructuring of the pattern selection agribusiness harmonized commodity environment. Where is the economic aspects (agribusiness) achieved at the same time the environmental factors remain intact can be sustainable. For the palm sugar, known as the plant that is not 'selfish', can ber'kolaborasi 'with other kinds of plants, especially during early growth. The flowering is continuously throughout the many years used to maintain the honey bee, the community around the forest can be enough to take advantage of economies of sugar palm that grows there.
5. At the time in some areas are eager to develop non-food commodities, industrial estates sekala large (such as Oil Palm, Rubber, etc.). Then these regions are actually build a seimbangan. For when the non-food commodities, while rampant commodity pangannya tersisihkan, the food is very dependent region from other regions. At the moment there are circumstances where other areas protektif also with the stock pangannya then it will become a threat to the region that are not independent pangannya. Not yet on the export of commodities such as non-food materials decreased prices or demand, the economic conditions of these regions can be decreased drastically, a local economic crisis. With this consideration the diversity of commodity-based food and non food into consideration. Palm sugar in this can become a commodity penyeimbang, because the sugar palm can be directed to the food industry and non-food.
6. Development of palm sugar now is still initiated by the institutions non-government, even only by the personal-personal independently, the attention the government is still very poor. Agricultural Research & Development Agency is also still not mengagendakan research and development of sugar palm, Research Universities also are not covered in palm sugar. Therefore the National Council of sugar palm, which is expected later this can encourage the Government, the Ministry of Agriculture, Research & Development Agency, Universities, Private Institutions for researching, developing palm sugar and all products into a new security product that is very profitable.
7. Management development of palm sugar is very important because of the threat from the claim that Malaysia is now hard-working but very secretly develop the sugar palm. Claims that a patent can only be processed products such as sugar crystals, palm sugar, sugar palm sugar syrup, sugar instant with a mixture of diverse taste, soy-based palm sugar, until the products are processed fiber-based ijuk from sugar palm. Such materials industry and handicrafts made from palm sugar palm leaf rib. With the National Council of palm sugar, then can be expected to share the role and tasks for whom what, and when it should start and when the results can be obtained. The Board of palm sugar with a national stake holders that there will also be preparing the Road Map National Development sugar palm.
Rev. .... if so the National Council of sugar palm should have been born so that not too long again. After birth to quickly understand the role and tasks, fast moving, but still systematic and strategic. National Council of palm sugar is also expected to be able to convince the Government and all Stake Holder in the field of development of palm sugar to each other can work together to develop palm sugar. In SMSnya Pak Rusfian also propose to the National Council of sugar palm by the people 'strong' in the business development of the national sugar palm. He not forget one mentions the name of Mr. Hashim Djojohadikusumo, a national figure, the big national generate a lot of moving the national sugar palm.
How do you think?
Not many know that SUGAR PALM or sugar palm tree. Actually, a lot of trees across the archipelago has many benefits, including as a producer of sugar. Sugar palm tree to grow in Kendal, Karang Anyar, Lebak, Banten, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, North Sumatra, Borneo Island to Papua.
Palm sugar obtained from sugar or pollen, which is often referred to as a roomie, the male flower stalks that can disadap when sugar palm trees aged five years, with peak production in the age of 15-20 years. Roomie processed into sugar in the form of solid, liquid and powder, or can be further processed into alcohol and vinegar.
Palm sugar with different sugar normal. Compared with sugar, sugar from the tree SUGAR PALM can be used for all purposes, ranging from beverage sweeteners, flavoring and cooking. Food pempek typical Palembang perhaps because of the good use palm sugar as one of the options pemanisnya.
Excess other, which is made from sugar roomie does not contain chemicals and drugs can be. Content kalorinya and glisenik indeknya low to make palm sugar is not dangerous for diabetics. This seems to fit with the healthy lifestyle that is increasingly popular. Residents are also increasingly selective consume food. May be so, although still less popular with the sugar, palm sugar more sought buyers.
"Sugar sugar palm organic products," said Indrawanto, owner of Diva CV Together Forward. Indrawanto palm sugar is a businessman who successfully pioneer the business since 2005. Diva Forward Together process roomie into palm sugar emmet (crystal) and palm sugar liquid in Tangerang, Banten. Indrawanto receive the supply of sugar palm from the local farmers to be processed into sugar with the packaging Sachet, the size of 0.5 kg and 25 kg. Customers not only in Banten and Jakarta, but has meluar to other areas in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Palm sugar prices 30% more expensive than sugar. But, according to Indrawanto, this is not a problem because there is a value-added sugar products offered by roomie this.
Not only Diva, Cooperative Business Solutions Business (KSU) I also become a player palm sugar that success. Cooperative based in Lebak, Banten, this is a business deal with palm sugar in the stand since 1999. Based on research Burhanuddin called Prospect Business Development Cooperative Production in the palm sugar, three years ago KSU I have to handle business palm sugar up to 50 tons per month.
Sales in the regional market (Jabotabek) is done through modern markets such as Giant, the hypermarket, Sogo Supermarket, and Kem Chicks. Potential domestic market demand is still wide open. Demand for palm sugar has reached 120 per month, and in certain seasons, such as fasting month and the show, could reach 180 tons.
Potential demand for palm sugar larger, considering the food and beverage industry continues to grow. Palm sugar can be substituted sugar rafinasi raw materials, which is still diiimpor. The problem is, indeed exist in the price that has not komptetitif.
Although the market in the country, not the maximum tergarap, KSU I made a breakthrough into export markets in cooperation with the German GTZ through the system for results. The selling price of exports reached U.S. $ 2 per kg, while the price of staple production is U.S. $ 1. To capture the opportunities greater, I have SKU organize additional five centers of sugar palm cultivation of about 3 hectares, so that farmers tap previously only three trees per day increased to 20 trees.
Cooperatives are also doing production mechanization, to ensure the sustainability of production, both in the quantity and quality of the standard market. Ryuji Nishi, a business consultant palm sugar, the opportunity to reveal the food products from Indonesia in the Japan Open. Palm sugar are not contain chemicals derived from plants and organic.
To develop the export of palm sugar to Japan need to find partners in Japan, such as special Japanese food producers, producers of sugar paste or coffee shop owner. Prices of palm sugar in Japan last month, as quoted www.divafood.indonetwork.co.id, Palm ya Y735 per 200 grams, apple ya Y1000-2000 per kg, brown ya Y240 per 0.5 kg, Crystal ya JPY160 per 0 , 5 kg, sugar paste Y 500 per 0.5 kg.
Palm sugar suppliers in Japan is currently dominated by Thailand, which control the market 49%, Australia 39% and 12% of South Africa. If only, the potential for palm sugar is developed, Indonesia candidate meraup greater foreign exchange. (email@example.com)
By Sepudin Zuhri (Contributor Bisnis Indonesia)
It can not be finished later that if the sugar palm growing gap may also rampant grog (alcohol) the form of palm wine or stamp mouse, and others. Moreover, if the tapper was not able to prepare themselves to be sweety water stalk as sugar, the most readily sick .. release to the roomie to be made to accommodate the palm wine or alcohol stamp rats.
Concerns such as this will affect the policy of a sugar palm in the region. May be the DPRD members reluctant to agree to plan the development of sugar palm in the area because of these concerns. Similarly the leaders of the region would not bear the risk when increasingly high alcohol criminal offense will be increased, and it is the result of the policy. Of course not mean there will be a case of physical development and economic development undertaken in the field, but the moral is not to counterbalance.
Such concerns will remain a thread haywire when we do not try to analyze why we should worry. Concerns are similar fears when something will happen that are not desired. Fear is a disease, including weakness because human life does not know or understand the current situation and will happen. Seandaianya more and more people know what is happening and will understand and ways to overcome them, they fear it will be increasingly reduced or lost. Decreasing cause fear and loss of confidence and courage in the face of events that will come.
So .... to erase the concerns and fears will be disbursed later in case of palm sugar alcohol is growing, so we need to learn and find the exit from the reasons that cause concern there. We will try to identify the threads from the disheveled problems that occur from our traditional palm sugar farmers now.
Selling more practice roomie fresh from the process must become more palm sugar.
dificult managing a roomie Sugar
The farmers and the sugar palm tapper sometimes have to work hard enough in the garden and can not afford more energy to process sugar into roomie. Not to find firewood for cooking sugar, and the need to cultivate sugar workers who traditionally reach 4-5 hours each process, then send them packing sugar and sugar to traders, and so on. Sequence work, such as that which causes the farmers (which is actually quite rational) finally chose a shortcut in the form of mejualnya roomie Fresh sugar palm, or sugar palm roomie that terah terfermentasi, without announcement, and even picked directly by the traders in the garden.
However, the actual niche in the conscience of the farmers and sugar palm tapper roomie this, feel guilty participate also result in the case of the high alcohol in the place. As experienced by Mr. Sarman in Nunukan, he was also a priest incredulous at the place. To reduce the sense of bersalahnya, Mr. Sarman sell roomie in the state is still sweet, or call him as a sweet palm wine. However, as is, because firewood is scarcely workers who help cook are also not available, the children are school / college outside the region, especially the purchase price of palm sugar Fresh roomie also quite high.
Technology is a very simple way of susahhnya still working in the processing of sugar. Furthermore because of the lack of unity among the crafters roomie palm sugar, then the process to be scattered in small-scale and small and inefficient. Firewood as fuel processing system of traditional search more difficult, more and more distant and expensive. This is affraid sense for processing into sugar palm sugar.
Diversification of products, institutional sugar palm farmers, the image of products from sugar palm roomie and the efforts of law enforcement
There are some scheme or the effort to reduce or obviate kekhawatian was, among other processed product diversification efforts, which have a higher value and market share broad. Of course, this product diversification efforts need hard work from all parties, because the need in a very long time. If we need to advertise on national TV, the actual products that normally are different with each other as often dicitrakan through TV ads. Examples of such products GULAKU brands of white sugar, rice flour ROSE BRAND, candy RELAXA, ABC syrup, syrup COCO viewing, etc..
Imagination view products from sugar palm roomie should have started from upstream to hilirnya and last diiklan TV. From start to make SOP (standard operating procedures) in the cultivation and maintenance of the garden palm sugar, SOP management roomie up with packaging and marketing their products. All must be managed not traditionally again, be professional. Therefore, farmers should be corporated or in a corporation such as farmers' groups, cooperatives, or a businessman who menghimpunnya either group or fragmentary.
On a broader scale district level, for example, sugar palm Farmers Association was formed district level. Next will be the National Association of palm sugar level, which, among other task is to build the image of products from sugar palm Indonesia at the national level and the world. In addition, the Association is also encouraging the Government to further consider the development of palm sugar in the future.
Besides the efforts of law enforcement, because the actual alcoholic beverages should be restricted and supervised the designs. Enforcement of this rule began with the establishment of regulations that are set in a regulation in each region and its implementation in the field, including the products of alcohol produced from sugar palm roomie this. Occasionally sweep conducted by officers supervisors Local regulations, usually SATPOL PP, for those who violate the provisions of the alcohol trade, including palm wine is bitter.
This can vary between regions nuansanya with one another. Examples such as in North Sulawesi, where drinking Cap Rat things have become normal and be entrenched, may even demand it from a cold climate. Similarly in the region, which SUMUT roomie palm sugar palm wine to be consumed regular or beams. Will vary with the local community, which muslimnya strong run sharia such as in South Sulawesi, or in Aceh. Will also vary by region or even BANTEN with East Kalimantan. Well ... this is India!
Roomie could actually be developed or didiversifikasikan into various products which are very diverse, including:
1. Fresh sugar palm roomie
2. Fresh sugar palm roomie diverse taste & aroma
3. Pure palm sugar syrup
4. Palm sugar syrup diverse taste & aroma
5. Print Pure palm sugar (various shapes and sizes)
6. Print palm sugar with various taste & aroma
7. Serbuk palm sugar (think palm sugar)
8. Serbuk palm sugar (think palm sugar) with various taste & aroma
9. Aneka beverages that (combined with a variety of beverages have medicinal herb)
10. and others.
If yet in an area designated for buses only roomie sold in the form of palm wine or Cap Tikus, actually shows that the region is not tergarap with both the target markets outside of the fans or this palm wine Cap Tikus. Actually will be more fans roomie Fresh palm sugar if the producers roomie pencitraan this can create products that will be good. I actually thought I was very hard difficult, but that was about to start a trying, the first brave losers, who are at risk as the spark, the forerunner, the beginner.
Do not worry because the later history will also record the services for the pioneer was. If our heartfelt yet with the efforts and only because we want to benefit for each other is enough. God alone, the Knower. But for the successful pioneer of the brand image will cling forever. Example, if we remember the water in the package we call AQUA with water, then plaster the wounds that called HANDYPLAST sure, people mention the water pump with SANYO, etc.. This means that the product name that is inherent with the brand pelopornya.
Market products such as drinks roomie Fresh palm sugar or palm wine sweet (or legen, turns. Java) could actually dijajagi, if in case the preservation and technology company has a patent. In areas such as East Java around Surabaya, Gresik and Tuban Havant legen known as a fresh drink sold to the road users. Legen sold here comes from plants or Lontar Siwalan, still with the same family of plant sugar palm, the family of Palma.
Roomie fresh Siwalan with jerry cans, plastic jerry cans with 20 literan vehicle pick up every morning distributed to customers at the hawker stalls, vendors legen alongside a road, in crowded places such as factories, terminals, markets, schools and others. However, this must drink out of that day also, if not exhausted usually cooked or boiled in order not to sour or fermentation, and besuknya can be sold again. The seller usually also prepare ES BATU, as Legen will be more favor if drunk in the cold, fresh once. At the bus terminals are also sold in the legen sweet bottled Aqua responsibility, or for large bottles of Aqua by.
Of course pengemar refreshing beverages, which have medicinal, and can cure certain diseases everywhere, and far more than the amount of palm wine fans. Because consumers drink from the ocean was not considered among all children and adults, do not make the economies of ordinary people to the rich. Therefore need to be developed and tapped product roomie Fresh sugar palm so that this can become a commodity that needs a lot of people and can be relied on by the crafters roomie.
If roomie from Siwalan can be sold in the form of fresh and sweet, not as beverages or intoxicating liquor (alcohol), the roomie palm sugar would also be sold in the form of roomie that sweet, fresh and not intoxicating, the Legen palm sugar. Legen palm sugar is sugar palm roomie that condition remains unchanged, still fresh and has not experienced a fermentation or chemical and physical changes. Therefore it is necessary to search technology, preservation roomie Fresh or sugar palm Legen need to be searched and continuously improved, so also forms an attractive company. Because roomie sugar palm, which is still fresh in fact have many drugs and often savor the effort to cure certain diseases.
Therefore, it should be a good brand image of this Legen sugar palm, palm sugar Fresh as a roomie, or what name, but the name will be tercitra a beverage product that everyone feel happy, safe and do not worry. This has been started by Mr. and Mrs. Evi Indrawanto with DIVA'S forward with, and Mr. Suparno Jumar with Halimunnya Store, and others. Welcome to the start is always nice remain successful.
Development in the neighboring country of Malaysia is also quite good, such as that done by Datuk Harris Mohd. Salleh is the owner of Barnsley River Plantation. In addition to the plantation as neatly fit the Eco Resort also be equipped with facilities that attract Agro, also factory processing industry. Barnsley River Plantation is located in the State of Sabah (borders with neighboring Nunukan district) and other than sugar palm processing factory, also planted oil palm plantation, teak, fruit garden and the Naga people Cat (Cat mustache), Mengkudu (Noni) and processing. Garden with various commodity processing factories that were clean and attract tourism to become the object (Agro) will be more value that can bring additional income. However, that is not less important is the creation of pencitraan of the product. Brand Image will create and place the concept of integration, such as in Badin River Plantation this.
Barnsley Arenga Pinnata Syrup is all natural - no preservatives or Chemicals are added. In conclusion, arenga CONSUMPTION pinnata is a traditional and Homeopathic remedy, and shall ultimately revitalize the body. "She was that sort We are our own plants over 5, 000 Acres at Barnsley, Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia" said Datuk Harris Mohd Salleh, Barnsley River Plantation owners or also known as the Garden Sdn Bhd Rimau.
What has been done by several entrepreneurs in the top can be a lesson for us, if we want to build our palm sugar farmers. How do we create among farmers in the area of a unified form groups. This is the beginning of a very important development. Because with the formation of bias, we set the spread of this area more attractive, in addition to managing the results roomie and the other from sugar palm bias more efficient. If the products of the group is managed with good, can be competitive, have more value, then we actually have to build the image of the product.
Moreover, if we can manage the area of sugar palm plantation owned by a farmers' group objects that have a good image appropriate to visit the tourist attraction as an alternative. Sugar palm garden with a row of plants that fit, the tapper working on a unique rutintasnya with regularity, and the crafters his bussiness with palm sugar units in the processing of sugar with a regular clean, tidy and well penataannya. This could be additional income and pencitraan brand of products will be produced for the of the managers.
UNDERSTANDING ON CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOLOGY, AGRONOMY TOWARD DEVELOPE PALM SUGAR PLANTATION HIGH YIELD
To start discussing what we need to note in building sugar palm plantation, the investigation would not systematic. I will only select some aspects of it separately in the discussions but could interrelated. Understandably, this is not a scientific thesis or essay. However, this article is a reflection of the thoughts or ideas from a roadside practitioners, not academics, especially a researcher.
Sugar palm trees is the annual period of its development, which is still not too clear. How long seeds should be prepared, then the seeds are planted until the beginning of production, how long the next harvest or production. During this there is no exact figures, is still very relative. Many of the experience of farmers and laborers' still vary widely. This is a barrier for the investors or the organizer of the feasibility study or a proposal to build a sugar palm plantations or programs for both large companies or government programs.
This is likely due to the above research on sugar palm has not been systematically structured, what would be achieved or desired from the sugar palm this. In the past kemanfaatannya are not known to many, many prospects have disingkap. Finally, we still do not know why all this sugar palm to the study of materials, materials research in order to resolve the problems of this nation.
After prospects were known, and we plan to develop, and then there are the questions that appear, from where we started? I then started from the question of sugar palm, which most often appears, is about the age of future development of the sugar palm.
Age is ready for planting sugar palm seeds
How age so that the sugar palm seeds planted ready? During this the 'Union' sugar palm from seeds to plant that grows naturally under the trees are old. Young and wild seeds and planted directly appointed to the land desired, or planted in the first polibag so alive and quite large, then planted. Criteria, the amount of seeds that are also ready to be planted varied. From some of the experience there and in consideration of agronomy, said the seedlings are ready if: the leaves have a minimum of 3-4 pieces of original, high seed reached at least about 40-60 cm, perakaran seeds have been enough.
Circumstances such as these seedlings are expected to have a provision to grow and develop in new places, that means the roots are ready to adjust to the new conditions of soil, leaves sufficient to capture solar energy, or even already high enough as a guide or bookmarks are a new life in the land These new, so their existence is not disturbed by other activities.
In the standard conditions for the growth and berkebangnya sugar palm seeds, seedlings preparation of this takes about 8-10 months of the period perkecambahannya. Perkecambahan are the seeds from the standard treatment takes about 2-4 weeks. The question is what and how the standard treatment of the seeds to germinate and seedlings ready for planting. Help, or SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) is not still raw, still vary depending on experience from each practitioner, that some may still be concealed. This may be the secret to the company because the cost of time spent on research and testing is high enough.
Because it was above the initial step in the development of palm sugar to the various development goals must start from the aspects of search and superior seeds. Aspects of the desired benefits vary widely, from the consideration of whether the production niranya superior products or the other. Other advantages of speed could be the beginning of production, namely the nature or age genjah begin production of short, so laborers can enjoy faster results while reducing the cost of investment and operational maintenance of age if the start of production is too long.
The type or age of productive varieties and palm sugar
We want the actual age is the production of short or genjah productivity, but high and long. However, the desire is quite difficult to be fulfilled, because the pattern of life that sugar palm 'basipetal' it. Sugar palm will grow in a vegetative maximum, and to grow in the next generatf. The period of vegetative separately with the generative, meaning the new generative will be held after the vegetatifnya maximum. Unlike the other plants, which criss cross between the vegetative growth, and the generative, fegetatif back again and again generative, which criss cross and repeatedly. In the sugar palm trees is not the case, namely where there is no time after the generative and then repeated vegetatifnya growth, leaf buds begin to form new again, it does not happen again.
So when the sugar palm tree to a female flower or tassel, meaning growth vegetati already completed or maximum. No more new leaf growth, development and production of stem no more, all in a vegetative is the final or maximum. The number of leaves will not grow again, even decreased or decreased according to age or reduced because the cut to facilitate the harvest, and the results from the sugar palm tree.
Therefore, the nature of this, if it is sugar palm genjah then the production also will not be long because it's vegetatifnya. Production of sugar palm roomie can be calculated from the number of bunches of flowers that appear. The emergence of bunches of flowers is a generative process of growth. Bunches of flowers will appear from the armpit from the midrib leaves above. Each armpit midrib leaves no prospect of bunches of flowers will appear, but not all prospective candidates to grow this bunch, some will be 'dormant' because of certain conditions. This means that the number of bunches that will be produced sugar palm tree is proportional to the amount of leaf, which was formed and also comparable with the conditions of the sugar palm tree.
The sugar palm tree genjah plants around the age of 4 years, with a height of about 3-4 meters have already started removing bunches of flowers. This means that the generative phase starting and ending time vegetatifnya. By the age of genjah or short, the number of leaves, which also formed a little more, the number of bunches that will also appear a little more, age or length of the production is also short. However, the amount of production from each tree each day can be the same as the tree that is not genjah.
Age of plant could actually be calculated from the amount of leaves that appear divided by the number of 'frequency "leaf emergence in a certain period of time. Sugar palm leaf that grows from the sugar palm tree leaves appear around 4-6 per year, but this can vary depending on the genetic varieties of trees, the health condition of trees and soil and agroclimate. Medium frequency of occurrence vary depending on the leaves of the plant growth is affected by the condition of local agro-climatic and soil.
Therefore many of the prospective laborers sugar palm is a very optimistic with palm sugar commodity in the future. Because of the conditions that now exist without the maintenance of adequate and only exploited only result is to help the laborers. Maintaining an adequate and terprogram certainly will be able to very significant higher productivity, this sugar palm trees. Garden planning, management and adequate maintenance will be adequate to lift the productivity is higher.
The number of leaves and productivity roomie
There are behaviors that sugar palm farmers, including counter-productive with productivity roomie, among others, as if there are no farmers to cut leaves the burden with kemudahannya reasons for the need to tap or to facilitate pemanjatan not harmed. Even with the decreasing leaf means Picturesynthesis activity also decreased, the actual result will be reduced also the result of, among other asimilatnya form roomie. So to reduce or cut the leaves are still green and fresh, can result in reduced productivity roomie. This is to reduce the productive leaves should be avoided.
From observations in the field is proven that the more the number of leaves in the sugar palm tree, the more that can also roomie disadap. The less productive on the leaves of the sugar palm tree, the fewer also gaining niranya. But the number of leaves that are very productive correlate with the results obtained sadapan roomie. Under this picture there are two, namely the number of trees with leaves that are still a lot of trees and a small amount of leaves.
Still leaves a productive and healthy leaves that are well on fotosintetic capacity, so that they can take advantage of sunlight and plant life and oxygen to produce results asimilat Picturesynthesis. Leaf of a healthy and productive usually visible green fresh clean and shiny, not harmed by leaves or other vegetation, do not look dirty and dusty, do not look dull and dry and mildew. With the sugar palm leaves a clean, healthy, shiny, fresh green, the amount will be enough roomie can be expected to result satisfactory for the laborers. Therefore, taking into consideration the maintenance of health and the adequacy of this leaf will be the main focus in the management of maintenance garden palm sugar.
What treatment should be given to the health condition of sugar palm leaves as expected? What is the pattern of cultivation conditions of memngkinkan will produce a satisfactory roomie? Hopefully in the description that will come I can explain more.
Sugar palm is cultivated for the prospect. However, how many trees must be planted? How to manage when the economic scale? This needs to be studied further. References are still very limited, because the assumptions used is piecemeal from the experience of some farmers and the situation in the field, which is very varied, from various regions in Indonesia.
Commodity business with what is usually measured from the expectations of market share that will dibidik. The type of product is also tailored to the needs that are required or that will be needed in the future. The fact that there is a real trend and the direction that will usually happen to be the criteria we set for the type and scale of business that will be built.
Recent Business conditions Palm Sugar commodity
Sugar Palm Commodity, which are now generally still with small-scale and small. Sugar palm trees that are now generally not planted in a planned, because it does not sebarannya regularly, the location of the planting is generally not a strategic and far from the settlement, planting distance is not a regular meeting and mixed with various other types of trees, effort - maintenance intensive efforts are not made. However, sugar palm trees being exploited in such a way to retrieve a lot of benefits, ranging from roomie, and fro, ijuk, palm leaf rib, stem, etc..
During this plan between the garden and the management plan is not unanimous. Farmers and laborers to plant only without disetting how the plan will be produced later, primarily farmers, and what the results later. This attitude has not happened because a lot of knowledge about finances and sugar palm, which is known to result from the sizeable land empty. However, how that will be obtained if about to plant, they have not been many who understand.
In general Crops planted palm sugar to be used it nira. Utilization roomie aims, among others, to be consumed directly as a refreshing drink, to be processed into palm wine or rat stamp, or to be processed into sugar. Traditionally used as a roomie palm sugar and fresh sweet drinks trusted enough that some treat certain diseases. Some symptoms of diseases such as kidney disease or associated with the ureter (deuretic) is recommended to drink roomie sweet palm sugar and fresh every morning for treatment efforts.
So that the sugar palm roomie is not immediately changed to sour or bitter because the fermentation process or other enzymatic processes that change the taste and color, then there are some efforts that traditionally the usual tapper. The first way to prevent acid or a roomie is seared with a container vessel to enter the roomie with skin such as wood bark-haired, leather-haired fruit, bark ketapi, and others. There are also farmers who enter the pandan leaves with the hope that niranya so heavily pandanus more unique taste.
Stopping the process of enzymatic roomie palm sugar can also be done by heating up the temperature around 80 degrees Celsius for at least 30 minutes. At these temperatures enzymatic activity can be stopped, so that the sugar palm roomie will still feel the sweet and sour is not changed or become bitter. With this sweet roomie can survive longer and does not change, if re-processed into sugar for elsewhere transportation take that long, roomie is still good.
The processing of sugar into the quality of infrastructure that require adequate management and good hiegenis. Roomie derived from the tapper or from the sugar palm garden is still a bit dirty, the evidence on processed into sugar and sugar be with warm water, there are still remaining sediment. The remaining sludge is somewhat disrupt this is usually serpihan-serpihan sliced bunches or other dirt from the garden.
The tapper should do this screening before roomie processed into sugar. Filtering can also be done by the craftsman or factory, which will manage the roomie into sugar. Sanitary conditions are the first to the quality of sugar can be accepted and sold commercially. Do not any particles other than water roomie that took into the container or participate in the process further. So roomie should really clean.
Designing extensive gardens, factory capacity and destination market
Business roomie sugar palm processing water into sugar production should be supported by adequate roomie. But the scale sugar production should be supported by a number of productive trees and a number of farmers who are ready to make tapping every day. Rendemen or content of sugar contained in the roomie vary depending on climate conditions, but there is a range of average that can be used as a benchmark. To be it sugar content reach around 10-14%, meaning that if we manage 100 liters roomie will be used as a sugar palm sugar as much as 10-14 kg.
If management unit (factory) capacity of palm sugar is 1,000 kg per day, the sugar palm roomie needed some 1,000 kg / day: 10% kg / liter = 10.000 liters / day. Or with a high count is 1,000 kg / day: 14% kg / liter = 7,142 liters / day. This means that the sugar factory with a capacity of 1 ton / day will need the raw materials roomie sugar palm of between 7,142 liters up to 10,000 liters each day.
I now live just adjust, approximately how much capacity the factory will be built. If for example, 10 tons per day means that the needs of raw materials in form of roomie 71,420 liters to 100,000 liters with. Conversely, if capacity is smaller manufacturer, for example only 100 kg a day, meaning niranya needs every day between 714 liters up to 1000 liters.
Now we will calculate the amount of tree planting, we will plan anticipates that the factory will be built later. Therefore, we must measure the average production roomie sugar palm tree in every day. This is referred to as a roomie productivity per tree.
Productivity roomie average each tree varies according to type and where to grow sugar palm. According to the magazine Trubus January 2008, in North Sulawesi sugar palm tree each on average, can produce between 20-25 liters per day. In South Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi and the results sadapan roomie sugar palm average every tree almost the same, namely between 15-25 liters per tree per day.
In the area of Banten and West Java, the results of the average production per tree between 7-30 liters. In Sumatra, the average production roomie also vary, but the figure is not far from the number in other areas. The actual need of more depth to a number of productivity in each region.
However, we need to remember that not every tree is roomie issued throughout the year. This means there is a period where the tree is not the roomie palm sugar. Long or short period of time, production and affect the rest of the tree every amount of productive trees from the area of cultivated garden. This is referred to as the productivity per tree plantation or the number of productive trees per day.
For example, such as Nunukan in East Kalimantan, Mr. Sarman has 18 sugar palm trees, 9 of them still young tree and nine others have already started production. At the time of their farmland to the authors found that 4 trees are disadap niranya, a when there are 5 more trees was tapped. Means that it can be said the number of productive trees per day between 4-5 trees from 9 trees that have grown. If the percentage is calculated means that 4.5 trees / day / area (average of 4 and 5): (shared) 9 trees / = 50% of the area per day. In this case it is needed more in-depth research in measuring the numbers, including any that may affect this figure.
According to some opinions, in each hectare of land can be planted between 140 to 250 trees. Or say, with the average of 200 trees per hectare. At about 6 years old and sugar palm trees are mature and start producing. If there are approximately 50% of the amount of productive trees and the average production per tree roomie 10 liters, meaning in each day will be 200 trees per hectare x 50% x 10 liters / tree = 1,000 liters / ha / day. Means that our whole garden of 1 hectare former roomie will be produced 1,000 liters of palm sugar each day.
I now can be linked with engine capacity of our sugar factories. If the capacity of the sugar factory 1 ton a day we will need approximately 7,142 liters to 10,000 liters each day roomie. We use only the number that is easy to 10,000 liters. So now what can be known for our extensive gardens can produce 10,000 liters roomie / day, the 10 hectare. Now the scale of the garden can be planned capacity of the factory and the market should be.
Here until there is an illustration of how the area cultivated with palm sugar, which is adjusted plan capacity sugar mill was built. Similarly, if roomie sugar palm, is directed to bioethanol, then we count the ways of calculation of the above.
Questions that encourage this very casually terlontar of my friends from Jakarta who visited Nunukan in East Kalimantan. In his visit travel so much I describe and explain the advantages and prospects of plant sugar palm this to him, even on questions such as who terlontar. Then I tried to understand also that there is something that causes it can happen.
It is ironic. This paper tried to analyze what is suspected as the cause of the sugar palm so little attention. Some things in the bottom of this can be a cause.
1. Sugar Consumption Pattern Changes due to the growing industry Sugar Factory
If the pre-industrial era forward is the first of sugar sugar made from sugar palm, Sugar Cane and Coconut. Sugar circulating in the market that it is in the form of the mold (often called cephalic sugar, sugar boxes, sugar roof), and in the form of powder or often called palm sugar.
If you see the look of the traditional sugar from this impression that there is less interesting, the quality is not uniform, the color is not uniform, generally, are not attractive packaging, telihat dirty and less hiegenis. If consumed, or be used as a sweetener in beverages is still no dirt left.
Alone with white sugar produced by the factory of the modern, clean white appearance, easy stored, how penyajiannya also practical, spoons and cast live in glass. If there is the effect of sugar is less practical, especially sugar mold, that will use the chip should be sliced first, or split it. Because the shapes can not regularize the size of the large number of sugar also can not be reached to the level of sweetness desired beverage. Diversity is the one quality that may cause consumers prefer white sugar or a sugar crystal. By that measure can still obtain the level of sweetness that fit more easily and quickly.
Along with the international sugar trade bergairahnya based on sugar cane, the colonial government to build factories with a capacity of the sugar is high. This condition is forcing traditional consumption of sugar changed because of the ease of obtaining sugar compared with white sugar. Including the drastic changes that could only happen because of the psychological environment has changed.
This change is starting from the sugar industry because the base is located in Java. Center for sugar trade is also located in Java, but to influence holistically almost all corners of the archipelago. Even when it is the international sugar trade is dominated by sugar crystal clear that the white.
Changes in the pattern of traditional community life to the pattern of modern life is also a cause of sugar consumption patterns change. The characteristics of modern life pattern of sugar consumption are: Practical, STORE quickly, Standard or certainty, Clean and Healthy, interesting because of the shape and packaging, Prestige and prestige, Standard price or cheaper , Available everywhere, Etc..
Changes in patterns of consumption of sugar this makes palm sugar or brown sugar on the wane in the market. Palm sugar is not more attention. Thus, sugar palm tree is not directed into supporting the sugar industry. Palm sugar may be taken only niranya for making beverages such as palm wine legen and. Even in some places in Java many ditebangi taken because the starch sagunya. Utilization of other fruit are taken to and fro, ijuknya to craft brooms, etc.. While parts of this plant palm sugar is not too promising economically, because the market is not growing. So when the known value, good start, sugar palm trees that do not meet the expectations can be managed for the industry.
Dominannya with sugar cane as a source of raw materials and commodities sugar, or can be mentioned sugar cane-based sugar industry, then other commodities to be sinking. Palm sugar as a commodity source of sweetener does not become again. Sugar cane into the center of attention, which suck up the participation of various institutions and businesses to take the role.
Large-scale program digelontorkan to the development of sugar cane and sugar cane-based sugar industry. Moreover, when the sugar cane is more "problematic", thus the various parties want to overcome the problem of sugar cane and factory gulanya. The spirit of giving more the budget for happen again. Cakes budget to fight again, many INGI get the cake, but the problem will remain a problem. Problems can visit the evidence, other than commodity mereformasinya with palm sugar that winning the produktifitasnya overcome some suber sugar raw materials that others (such as sugar cane, palm or Siwalan, coconut, nipah, beet, corn, bulb, etc.)..
2. Age maintenance long enough to generate
Perhaps this could be the first reason is not as the development of palm sugar. Compared with the Oil Palm at the age of 3 years has started to produce, so the faster you can enjoy the results. Research on plant Oil Palm is so global, so that is can almost be sure that the count-count the results.
The development of downstream industries based raw materials from oil palm is also such a rapidly developing, makes several countries including Indonesia, also use it. Attention is very much on the commodity of Oil Palm is more attention to scuttle the government and research institutions to plant palm sugar.
Actually many sources of germ plasma plant that can produce sugar palm sugar palm plant, which produces high Genjah well. Not only because tergali by research institutions that are genuine potential to become Indonesia is forgotten.
From the many problems cultivation of the Paing sugar palm dominant cause people are reluctant to the seedling factors. Sugar palm seeds rather difficult initiated, if yet can require a very long time, that make people not to be patient. Difficulties perkecambahan seeds are the main cause of this reluctance to the sugar palm, so that more people leaving the seedling nature. Unfortunately at the time revoke the seeds that grow naturally, then planted in the land, many of the plants eventually die.
The seeds that came from the fruit harvested or collected under the tree usually also contain substances that can cause itching on the skin. If you do not understand about these people end difficulty is not patient, and then leave the plant palm sugar.
Actually the above is not a problem if the science knowledge and calm with palm sugar is well understood. Something that is difficult that there are factors that are very profitable.
3. Research on sugar palm has not been intensive
As noted above was that the research on sugar palm is still very small, not even diagendakan regularly. Researchers may be difficulties in literature from overseas, that perhaps, if not also been so many. Because there is no sugar palm abroad, many of which are only in Indonesia and some tropical countries, most of which also do not consider the sugar palm.
If the research we depend on the results of research from overseas, perhaps forever palm sugar will not be material research study of the "experts" we. I purposely give quotes on the word of experts, not because we skeptical with our experts. But actually we are very disappointed why they are not able to open the prospect that the farmers in some areas have been developed.
In the case of palm sugar crops including palm, which is actually there Coconut Research and Palma in Manado, North Sulawesi. Its North Sulawesi, including the most potential in the development of the sugar palm trees. However, the pitied, why this has not been widely direspon to be implemented in Indonesia? This is a big question mark.
If you see the other plants that produce palm sugar sweetener as an alternative to the sugar industry, such as research institutions should P3GI in Pasuruan East Java should be covered in plants to sugar palm. In fact, all this does not happen. Because the problem is that many sugar cane research focused only to plant sugar cane. Many issues were the budget for research. For example, if only because of the budget and then only examine the sugar cane, palm sugar until later it would become a serious concern.
Research will be the case or not commodities should be based on the budget or not, or the potential problem or not. Should we choose a destination that is the research into alternative, so that many problems in the commodity sugar cane that can be done. If a commodity can not be expected to raise the welfare of farmers means, we should be looking for new alternatives. Sugar palm is an alternative sweetener that is very promising. (Please read my writing in "Sugar Factory based sugar palm, why not?" In http://kebunaren.blogspot.com/)
4. The existence of a myth that sugar palm tree place ghost
This myth was affecting the pattern of sugar palm trees. Because of the mistaken assumption that we are rarely met sugar palm trees around the yard. Palm sugar found in many gardens far from home, in the peripheries of rivers, the slope-hill slopes or relatively far from the settlement, even in the forest. But there is suspicion that category, including sugar palm forest plants.
Because of the sugar palm trees far from home, so people rarely consider the potential and advantage. But to plant sugar palm on land near the settlement received opposition from the family or neighbors.
There is also suspicion that the person who will manage the sugar palm tree, whether taken fiber, fruit, leaf stalk, or will be taken sweety flower water or 'nira', must be overcome ghosts in the sugar palm tree. But there are specific ways to "persuade" sugar palm tree that would remove niranya. In addition, the candidates tapper in this memukuli slowly and repeatedly, flicker-liukkan bunches of flowers, with menepuki hands with a certain feeling, and usually followed with song, or whistling or even certain mantras. It can be said that to manage the sugar palm tree is not all people can be, only the "special" who can take roomie is sugar palm tree.
Resulting from the assumption above rarely or never even met our sugar palm tapper roomie is young people, especially young people or children. What we find is usually the "workers" sugar palm trees are people who have parents with the sober appearance of the impression that the farmers are rather hard life or even the poor farmers.
5. Identical with palm sugar palm wine, stamp and drunken rats
The assumption is that there is some truth, because in some areas, such as in North Sulawesi to the people there now manage roomie palm sugar to be called a drink palm wine, stamp or mouse. In regions such as North Sulawesi this has become a tradition, partly because the region is expecting the cold. Palm wine or stamp rats that drink is a warm body and can provide the spark of the people working in the area with air that is cold or begadang in the night air with the very cold air. Finally, drinking palm wine tradition down the decline. In fact, this also occurred in North Sumatra, namely in the area with the surname of the Batak.
If the two areas had observed this community dominant religious Christians or Christian. It appeared in the above two areas, such as drink palm wine was not too into the "taboo". Different regions of mayoritasnya Muslims, especially the Muslim "fanatics" or militant keep this hope can not grow.
So .. dikhawairkan can make as many people drink palm wine made from sugar palm roomie, so this seems to be scoring poorly on the Government to make decisions in the development of sugar palm large-scale.
Although many regions, which also is a bag out Muslim palm sugar can also be developed, in areas such as South Sulawesi, from Pinrang, Sidrap, Bulukumba, Wajo, Sopeng to Tana Toraja. However, in areas where the predominantly Muslim nation, management roomie directed a sugar palm sugar. This also occurred in West Java, Banten, Central Java, and others.
Maybe there are still other factors that cause the development of palm sugar has not occurred as Oil Palm, which has not been written on the top. What do the readers of Time? Please comment?
Palm sugar (Arrenga pinnata) has many local names such as: bakjuk / bakjok (Aceh), the pattern / paula (Karo), bagot (Toba), agaton / bargat (Mandailing), anau / neluluk / nanggong (Java), palm sugar / kawung ( Sunda), Hanau (Dayak, Kalimantan), Onau (Toraja, Sulawesi), where Nawa-Nawa (Ambon, Maluku).
Many local name given to sugar palm in Indonesia. This is because the level of distribution is very broad.
Functionality sugar palm tree.
Sugar palm trees can be used both as a function of conservation, and production functions that produce various commodities, which have economic value.
Sugar palm tree with the shallow and broad will be very useful to prevent soil erosion. Similarly, the leaves are quite dense and closed with a stem layer ijuk, will be very effective to arrest the decrease in rain water directly OF land.
Management and cultivated plants need to be given the sugar palm sugar palm trees have advantages in preventing soil erosion, especially in the areas of steep because the root of the plant palm sugar can achieve more than six meters into the ground, so it can grow well in the canyon, cliffs and will be very good as prevention of erosion, landslides tree.
Trunk sugar palm often used for bridges and drainage (middleman) after the split lengthwise and taken empulurnya (or sago starch). Trunk palm sugar can also be used to galar-galar and rooftop home.
In the stem of sago palm sugar, there are (starch), which can be made of flour. How to produce sugar palm flour is not difficult. Primordial stem sugar palm cut along the 1 m, and then split empulur contained in dikeruk scraper with a hatchet. In the factory, the process of empulur done with pieces of stem sugar palm split into several parts, and then empulur shredded by machines pembarut. Next empulur results pemarutan was squeezed-remas with water that flows to shelter tanks and the waste is removed. In the container vessel, the starch will settle. After all the starch sugar palm sediment, swimming (vessel) and dried starch taken. Starch sugar palm, which is still wet dried up dry flour and sugar palm is a fine or aci kawung (Sunda).
Young leaves, leaf and bone sheath leaves, can also be used for wrapping cigarettes, palm leaf rib and broom the bottle cap as a substitute for cork.
In rural areas, meat or cork from the midrib leaves many palm sugar is used as material of making children's toys such as car-mobilan. In addition, both also used as a plug bottles, the channel water from metal or bamboo, and others. Midrib leaves with a dry sugar palm leaves many residents used as firewood. Abunya are often used as a healer of the population injured, the traditional powder, and also for the fertilizer plant for minerals that contain high enough.
Midrib leaves are also often used for garden tools bearer results.
Flower stalks when cut will result in liquid form roomie that contain glucose and can be processed into palm sugar or palm wine (Steenis et.al., 1975).
Interest male or sugar palm langrai (Sunda), usually obtained after the cut flower stalks to disadap niranya. This interest can be used to feed livestock, especially cattle goats.
When the sugar palm fruit that has not cut too mature, it will be visible bijinya flexible clear white (clear). This is the meat of seeds called fro and can be used as feed material.
Fro have long known of the Indonesian people. At the fasting month, the demand fro jumped very sharply. Islamic religious community that often makes fro as the typical menu in the fasting month. Both as food for the fast breeder or light meal after tarawih prayer.
Price and fro in the month of fasting is also more expensive compared to other months. In 1992, the average price fro Rp 500.00 / kg, while in the month of fasting between Rp 1000.00 - 2000.00 Rp / kg.
Market prospects Kolang-refinery is also quite bright as export commodities. Indonesia has been exporting Come forth since the 1970s and continued until now. Countries buyers fro Indonesia for the United States, among others, Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan and several European countries of the area.
Fro many materials used as a mixture of party-type food and beverages. Among others in making the compote, round, ice jumbo, cake, beverage cans, mixed ice, candy, and others. Even the community of West Java, which has a special form of bajigur drinks, always add to and fro in it.
If the Sudanese people calling fro with caruluk or cangkaleng, the residents of Jakarta call atep fruit. May be so, the emergence of a fruit atep because ijuk plant is normally used for the roof of the building. Along with the growing field of Upa-Food, now also appear various food products that use new and fro as a material, namely prestige and forth, forth-fed, and fro berjuruh.
Fro in addition to the material can be used for mixing various food and beverage, the content seratnya also good for health. Fiber fro and fiber from other food materials into the body causing the defecation regularly, so it can prevent obesity or obesity, coronary heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes.
Ijuk or Black Fiber
Palm sugar plant looks hideous because stem-covered by the plume of black called ijuk. Ijuk the form of fiber-fiber is attached to the stems around the base of midrib leaves.
The decreasing sugar palm trees in the past few years, also recognized by the craftsmen, or if penyisir in various areas. Even the ijuk was forced to find palm sugar plant to a more remote location of the factory ijuknya.
Ijuk is a lot of materials that are used for various purposes. Among other raw materials for wicker, such as ropes, brooms, brushes, decorations, traditional roof of the house, septik tank, and others. The roof is made from sugar palm ijuk resistance appeared to have more than 10 years and is not suitable because ijuk be able to splash rain water that swift.
Ijuk in the palm sugar, there are also a kind of palm leaf rib that hard once called harupat (Sudanese) In the first period, palm leaf rib is used as a pen to write letters in Arabic and West Sumatra, the tool is called Kalam. Kalam word comes from the Arab language, which means the tools to write.
Later ijuk sugar palm many also used as a seat cushion material and the seats of motor vehicles. In addition, ijik also be used as materials in the soundproof recording studio and building performance, the engine boiler heat insulator, and as additional materials to make the field of sports.
Ijuk export development in Indonesia between the years 1987 - 1991 can be seen in the table 10. The countries that during this ijuk importer in Indonesia including the United States, Inggaris, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, New Zealand, Taiwan, Japan, Australia stated Arabia, France and the Netherlands.
Umbut that there are at the top of palm sugar can be eaten lanngsung. But will more favor when processed or cooked first and then mixed with other food.
The root of sugar palm can be used to craft the material in the form of wicker material and making scourge.
Certain parts of the plant palm sugar can also be used as traditional medicines. With the ingredients to make a root and stem of sugar palm trees and grass reed, the difficulty to defecate away. How, this herb is boiled and drunk the water.
Palm wine from the fermentation results roomie palm sugar is also useful as menstruation zest. In addition, drink palm wine roomie is powerful enough to fight pneumonia and mejan. Palm sugar itself often involved in the traditional herb medicine, and he has the property as a drug fever and stomach pain.
Sugar palm plants reproduce themselves only through seeds. Therefore, the need for the cultivation of seeds needed. The selected seeds for seedlings of good quality and must have been cooked perfectly. Seeds for seedling can come out from the sugar palm civet stomach, the seeds of old results directly from the tree picking, and the seeds from the old sugar palm tree that is cut.
There are several ways of collecting seeds and origin for the preparation of seedlings, among others, by the way:
Initially soaked in cold water for more than 5 minutes less. Then cleaned and dried about 2 days. Once dry, the seeds are in polibag that has been filled with fertile soil and loose (if need be mixed with a little organic fertilizer) with a depth of about 1 cm. Usually within 12-13 days began to germinate the seeds of palm sugar, which is marked by the emergence hipokotil. Then, after 30 days are, the seeds of the surface soil polibag. Percentage perkecambah sugar palm seeds in this way reach 80-85%.
b). Old sugar palm seeds, seedlings, which quoted directly from the tree
Firstly this is the seed in the piles of waste is still quite wet and decay, for not less than 15 days. The goal, other than to facilitate removing the skin of fruits but also to stimulate the process of physiology seedling of seeds. After the seeds washed with cold water and dried in the sun about 2 days.
Next, seed in the polibag such as seeding from seed to exit from the belly of the weasel. Nursery places should shaded, even some farmers usually cover the embankments, germinate after closing opened a new embankments. Sprout in the embankments remain shadding and is adequate to maintain humidity. Usually, after 34 days the seeds will germinate and begin around 2-3 weeks and then the seeds will appear OF polibag land. Seddling percentage of seeds this way about 45%.
c). Sugar palm seeds, seedlings, old trees that come from the Cutting
This is the modification of the model of sugar palm seeds, which quoted directly from the tree. The sequence begins with berry fruit, pemendaman, in the garbage, barking, cleaning, and drying. Before be, the seeds of sliced brisket (near future shoots) selebar approximately 5 mm. Furthermore, the seeds soaked in cold water about 24 hours to accelerate the process imbibisi. Once the seeds are in polibag and usually 16-17 days after the start germinate, and 2-3 weeks and will appear OF. The percentage of sugar palm seeds perkecambahan this way about 75%.
d). Sugar palm seedlings can also be done using the old sugar palm seeds derived from the fruit that fell. How can the system be done with seedlings from seeds of the fruit quoted directly from the tree that is cut.
The steps that need to be done in the collection and the selection of seeds is as follows:
- Collection of sugar palm fruit that meet the requirements.
- Derived from sugar palm trees that grow healthy, dense leaf.
- Sugar palm fruit is ripe (yellow and brown the meat soft fruit).
- Fruit large (at least 4 cm in diameter)
- Rind finely (do not penyaklit attacked).
- Remove the seeds of sugar palm fruit that has been collected by membelahnya.
Choosing sugar palm seeds that meet the requirements:
- Relative size of seeds
- Black-brownish kecoklat
- Smooth surface (no wrinkles)
- Seed in the state of health not be consumed.
That need to be in the collection of seeds that is sugar palm fruit contained Oxalic acid on the skin when we will feel very itchy. Therefore, by the need to have to do with prevention, among other ways:
- Wear gloves when we are taking the seeds from the fruit.
- Avoid the hand that we are not touching other parts of the body, while removing the seeds from the sugar palm fruit.
- Another way to prevent sugar palm sap is not affected when we are removing the bijinya fruit from the brood with the first fruits of palm sugar, which is to become parents.
Pemeraman can be done by infused sugar palm fruit in wooden boxes and covered with gunny always be. After ± 10 days, sugar palm fruit decay, which will facilitate the grain.
Procurement of seed can be done in two ways, namely seeds from natural seed and nursery results from the seeds.
Procurement of natural seedlings / young wild.
The process of naturally assisted by animals, namely civet (Paradoxurus hermaproditus). The animals eat the fruit and sugar palm bijinya and bijinya out in full co-operation from the dirt. Seeds grow, spread and are not regularly gather. For to this place out, it can be done with a lap revoke (seeds taken together with the land).
Transplant seedlings can be planted directly in the field or through the process penyapihan infused with the baby in plastic bag (plastic bag) for 2-4 weeks.
Procurement through nursery seedlings
To get the seeds in large numbers with good quality, made through the procurement of seeds with a nursery. However, the seeds for mendapakan need to choose a good tree parent is eligible. The criteria of a good parent tree is as follows:
1. Trunk should midrib leaves with a big bow and lush
Until now, sugar palm trees that grow out categorized in 2 varieties, the Genjah sugar palm (tree rather small and short) with the production roomie between 10 - 15 liters / stem / day, and the sugar palm (the big trees and high) with the production roomie 20 - 30 liters / stem / day. For the parent tree is recommended variety.
Therefore, this must be considered in selecting and determining the parent tree as a source of tree seedlings, namely that the system is good flowering and flowering female and male flowering system in tapping sweety water of stalk. This is important because the plant is known as the sugar palm trees hapaksantik phase reproduktifnya limit the growth of stem with the power of life to 3 years.
2. Tree selected must have a high productivity
To know that the parent tree has been selected as the source of the seeds from flower stalk female with a roomie who have high productivity, between 20 - 30 liters /stalk / day, the need to be tapping male flower stalk roomie from the first or second. Because not all male flower stalk male the exit (9 - 11 stalks), and not all the trees roomie.
This is influenced by the process of plant physiology. When the male disadap MAYANG first or second production niranya so many trees are productive for the parent tree as a seed source. The tree was selected as the source of seed production with the roomie that many are not recommended for the process of tapping stem-hand to the next in succession. When the parent tree tapping carried out continuously (forced) it will produce fruit that seems intact but bijinya shrunken down so that even when planted produce sugar palm tree that is not good.
Collection of fruit and seed there are two ways :
1. Collection of fruit
Fruit used as a source of seed must mellow, healthy skin is marked with fruit khaki, not pests and diseases with a diameter of the fruit ± 4 cm. Fruit should be taken, which is located outside the rakila. Sugar palm fruit can be stored for 2 weeks in a plastic bag or cardboard to facilitate the separation of seed (seed) from the skin.
2. Taking the seeds from the fruit
Taking seed from the sugar palm fruit must use gloves because they contain sugar palm fruit Oxalic acid, which will cause itching when I bark. Alternatively, the brood with the fruits of the sugar palm collected until the skin has become rotten fruit so that the seeds have been separated from the flesh. In this way, the seeds can be easily retrieved and the condition is sugar palm fruit skin does not itch again.
Dorman fracture seeds to accelerate seddling initiation
Naturally, sugar palm seeds have enough time dormansi a long time, namely vary from 1-12 months, especially that caused by the hard skin and seeds so that hinder the impermeabel occurrence imbibisi water to the seeds. Efforts dormansi fracture has been done to overcome this impermeabilitas skin seed soaking through with HCl, H2SO4, hot water and skarifikasi.
Dorman of sugar palm seeds, also caused by the substance perkecambahan Enzyme inhibitor such as ABA, maturity embryo that has not been perfect and genetic factors, sugar palm trees.
Can be said that the cause of dormansi likely originated from the skin and seeds of the impermeabel Enzyme inhibitor perkecambahan in the skin and seeds, seed endosperm, because the fetus is planted directly in vitro can grow faster than the embryo, endosperm expression. This means that the endosperm effect hamper the growth of embryo itself.
Sugar palm seedlings need a long time, because the sugar palm seeds have dormansi nature. Although dormansi seed is nature to be able to survive so that the species remains sustainable, but the nature of the seed dormansi can disrupt the implementation of activities. Obstacles still faced in the provision of sugar palm seeds, among others, not the availability of technology that can cut dormansi seeds
Results of research shows that germinate very low power and variety (10 - 65%), and the time needed to start grow long enough that is about 4 - 6 months (Mashud, et al., 1989).
Dorman cause of the sugar palm seeds, among others, is a thick skin and seeds imbalance compound and the compound stimulus barrier in the event perkecambahan seeds. Besides the increase compound calcium Oxalic on sugar palm fruit that has been cooked is also suspected as a barrier seddling, on the other calcium Oxalic made by farmers because they can cause itching. Basically dorman sugar palm seeds can be cut with a variety of treatment before seddling, both physical, chemical and biological.
Known several ways to solve dormansi sugar palm seeds.
First Way :
Soak the seeds in the HCL solution with the thickness 95% within 15 - 25 minutes.
Their seeds in hot water with 50 º for 3 minutes.
Beads scrapped the skin in the area of growth sprout, and then soaked in water for 4 days, then stored at a temperature 28 ° -30 ° C to occur perkecambahan. Sprout and then planted in the humid fine sand to reach the third leaf growth
Media seeding can be made with the plastic bag the size 20 x 25 cm, which is filled with compost, sand and soil 3: 1: 1, and lubangi adequate at the bottom of drainage channels. Seeds that have been treated is put into plastic bags, such as deep as about ¾ of the seeds in the soil beneath the surface with the institution down with a slightly sloping position.
To reach the seed is ready for planting in the field (size = 40 cm), the time required hotbed 12 - 15 months.
Second Way :
Soak the seeds with KNO3 solution with the thickness 0.5% during the 36 hours (Salih, 2003)
Their seeds in hot water with 50 º for 3 minutes. To provide treatment to erase the physical back (near the fetus) or paper sandpaper with scarification.
Media seeding can be made with the plastic bag the size 20 x 25 cm, which is filled with compost, sand and soil 3: 1: 1, and lubangi adequate at the bottom of drainage channels. Seeds that have been treated is put into plastic bags, such as deep as about ¾ of the seeds in the soil beneath the surface with the institution down with a slightly sloping position.
Resources shoot around 40 - 50%, speed sprout around 40 - 55 days.
Seeds have been planted and sprinkling need to avoid shade from the sun directly. Sugar palm seedlings can be moved to the field (planted) after the age of 6-8 months since the leaves first formed.
The seeds that are collected by dried dried for 1-2 days.
Then the seeds soaked for 24 hours
Beads are appointed and placed a plastic bag and tied hermetically sealed, this is done until the seeds sprout and appears broken. According to the experience of farmers this stage takes about 7 days.
Only seeds that germinate taken to dipindakan in polibag, are the seeds that have not yet returned to germinate in plastic bags. Plastic bags containing the seeds are stored in a closed place. Storage bag that contains the seeds of this in the media as rice bran. Because of the humid conditions in plastic bags at once warm in the pile of rice husk, can drive the fetus to grow. Experience is from the sugar palm farmers from South Sulawesi and has been practiced in the garden of palm sugar Nunukan in East Kalimantan.
When the sugar palm seeds have been around the age of 4 months or have a 3 cm, then the seeds polibag moved to the other media have been filled with the planting of more fertile (consisting of soil and organic fertilizer or manure with a 1:2 ratio). Polibagnya size should also be greater, for example, the width of 25 cm and 30 cm high.
Care for seedlings
Maintenance during the process of covering routine, weeding, pengemburan land, and fertilizing. Until the age of 2-3 years seeds of enough fertilizer twice. Given the form of fertilizer NPK or Urea, TSP, and ZK comparison with the same. For the first year of each seed were given 20 g enough next year and 40 g.
Maintenance polibag small seeds in the first phase is done by:
- Seeds that sprout in the plant in polibag size 15 x 20 cm with the media planting soil mixture: husk: compost (3: 1: 1) and comparison of materials or the other.
- Seeds polibag is organized with little dijarangkan with the distance between polibag around 20-30 cm.
- Sprinkling seeds 2 times a day, morning hours 08.00 - 09.00 and afternoon hours 15:00 - 16:00
- The nursery is the grass-gadfly grass that grows well in polibag and land a place in the nursery.
- Pest and disease eradication, if there are symptoms of the disease and pest attacks.
Provision of fertilizer in small seedlings can be done with 2 ways, namely in the soil around the seeds.
- The type and amount of fertilizer given at the nursery is not too much, because the plants are still small.
First, run hotbed for between 4-5 months or appropriate development of the plant, so polibag have not felt comfortable again for the sugar palm seeds, because the development of roots, stems and leaves are quite large.
Maintenance polibag large seeds in the second phase is done by polibag size used in the second nursery with the same used for oil palm seedlings, namely the size or the size of 20 kg, 50x80 or 60x90 cm. Media planting the land is used is: bran: compost (4:2:2) . After polibag large media filled about 1 / 2 volume polibag, polibag seedlings prepared by the distance between polibag 80 - 100 cm.
Transplant seedlings from polibag first to polibag do not change the big lie polibag large position that contains the land. Seeds and medium taken by a small tear polibag with a knife without dismantle the structure of the media and perakarannya, then placed on polibag that contain the soil. Media land is added to cover the seeds so that the full polibag visible.
Sprinkling on the nursery seedlings polibag this large of the large-scale irrigation system using springkler. Watering is done at least once a day, depending on soil moisture or rainfall.
Fertilizing is done once a month every type of fertilizer with urea as SP 36 & 10 -20 grams / tree, or can also be done every 2 months with the type of urea fertilizer & SP 36 of 20 -40 grams / tree. Maintenance done until the seedlings are ready to be planted in the field, with seed around age 16-18 months after the seedling.
Seeds are planted and ready to have the characteristics as follows:
The development of root and stem the growth of leaves and proportional. Penetrate the root is out of polibag, stem and leaves enough solid wide open layout with a split leaf (not contract). The number of leaves enough (about 6 -10 sheets), the color of fresh green leaves with a shiny surface.
Excess sugar palm trees than other plantation crops such as palm oil is, sugar palm trees can be planted side by side with other crops or mixing it with the system. However, the planting of palm sugar can be done with the system or with a monoculture system agroforestry / tumpangsari.
With a monoculture system first made cleaning the field of vegetation that (land clearing) and the processing of land with piracy, or making a hole and the ground plants.
Making a hole the size of the plant with a 30 x 30 x 30 cm and the distance between holes (the distance planting) 5 x 5 m or 9 x 9 m. to accelerate the growth of plants given the hole in the ground which has mixed with manure, urea, TSP, about 3 - 5 days after planting hole is prepared, new planting is done. The new seeds planted, should be given shade or Reservoir.
Agroforestry systems / tumpangsari, this can be done to designate the land that is open between staple with the second plant cover crops such as land or crops planted leguminose
After the sugar palm seeds aged 2-3 years, the planting can be implemented. Plant hole should have made 2-3 months before planting with the size of 50x50x50 cm or larger. The distance between the 9x9 m holes ideally, but can also be larger or smaller depending on the condition of the land. Approximately one month before the planting, and that excavation of the hole and put the plant manure mixed with two cans of kerosene.
Planting should be done at the beginning of the rainy season to be a humid environment and sufficient water. For the important work of plant palm sugar is not much, except to clean the land around the plant and remove the midrib leaves dry. While waiting for the plants to flower, leaf and ijuk have read can enjoy the results of the sale.
Until now, there are no rules about how raw materials and fertilizer of the type and dose of fertilizer to plant sugar palm adult. It can even be said that do not exist. Meanwhile, pest and disease problems, also reported no kind of gadfly very dangerous plant palm sugar.
During this Sugar Factory (PG) still rely on sugar cane as the raw materials. Since the beginning of the establishment, the Dutch colonial government at the time that promote sugar cane, planting materials with a system of force. Moreover, since sugar cane detects miraculous, namely POJ 2,878 varieties resistant to disease sereh in the year 1921 is able to achieve productivity Sugar crystal (GH) 10.5 tons / ha. Then increased again to 15.1 tons per ha GH.
The Dutch colonial government more enthusiastic again because the sugar from the region jajahannya this is the State capital to build the windmill. So found POJ again in 3016, which in 1940 reached the highest productivity GH, which is 17.63 tons / ha. At that time the subject crystal sugar production reached 1.6 million tons, and export as many as 1.1 million tons.
Twelve years after the independence of the Republic of Indonesia, namely 1957, the Indonesian Government take over all of PG which were previously dominated the Netherlands. The situation changes, which do not apply again forced planting resulted in the decreasing area of planting sugar cane that is living 70-80 thousand hectares with the production of just 0.7 million tons.
Since the New Order with Pelita I, the government tried again turned the sugar industry. But then found variety PS 41 in the year 1965, which can push up production reached 1,024 million tons, and increase the productivity of sugar crystal to be 10.0 tons / ha. TRI Program (sugar cane intensification people) to pledge new efforts to stimulate the sugar industry, until 1970, the area reached 26,714 ha.
TRI program could be a program to support farmers, but on the other hand, less profitable for the sugar company, which is managed by the most PTP-PTP and the sugar company private. Proved in 1975, the productivity of sugar crystal dropped to 9.76 tonnes / ha, and down again to only 6.55 tonnes / ha in 1980.
Although already established Indonesian Sugar Council in 1972, a sugar Indonesia still has not recovered as at the time of Dutch colonial past. Therefore, PG-PG newly built outside Java until 1981 until the year 1986. This makes the government issued Presidential Decree No. 28 of 1982 to stimulate the national sugar Industry, by encouraging the TRI Programme, Rehabilitation PG, PG build outside Java and repair price of sugar policy.
Since finding a new superior varieties in 1982, the M 154, PS 6, M 442-51 national sugar production gradually increased again. Until 1987, the crystal sugar production reached 2.11 million tons, with a land area of 333,975 hectares of sugar cane wide. The situation is almost the equal of national production in the year 1932, but the acreage planted almost doubled, half of them are in the dry land. Because many sugar cane planting in dry land productivity resulted in an average that sugar crystal decreased namely only 6.34 tons / ha, the number rendemen average of only 8.21%.
On the other availability of land increasingly compete with commodity crops such as Rice, Corn, Soybean prices are better. Food security policy making policy directions for the use of the land area of sugar cane to be threatened. But then the development of sugar cane led to dry land.
However, this is not solve the problem, because the productivity of land, which cause less profit PG also not sexy. A very large investment to build the new PG-PG, so long will be able to restore their capital. Development of Sugar Factory cane-based investment required is very expensive, can be reached Rp 1.2 trillion for 5000 TCD capacity.
Sugar cane production data in 2002 showed that the East Java dominate almost 50% of the national sugar cane production, 33% outside of the rest are in Java, Central Java, in Jogjakarta and West Java. Because the PG and PG-cane land area, there are many in East Java. Land for sugar cane in Java compete with most commodity crops, because most of the planted rice fields diareal the beririgasi. Alone with the sugar cane land outside Java, which mostly in the dry land.
Circumstances that sugar cane is based can not seem to have more reliable. Efforts by the efforts have been made, but the fact decreased fertility of land, causing the productivity of land also decreased. Furthermore the equipment fathers PG, so do not make industry more efficient.
Factory sugar-based sugar palm, why not?
Why should palm sugar?
Palm sugar (Arenga pinnata, Merr.) Is a plant native Indonesia, almost all in the Indonesian archipelago, there is sugar palm trees. This means that this distination sugar palm in Indonesia and can overcome the problems bequeathed by the colonial Dutch.
Even the prospect of gold sugar palm tree has been since the days of the Kingdom of Mojopahit already known. Palm sugar to become an important commodity trade era kingdom first. Up until the time is diisyaratkan Wali Songo by Kanjeng Sunan Bonang when he was robbed by hooligan Lokajaya. I wonder when asked for his Kanjeng Sunan Bonang then appoint a sugar palm tree in the near hooligan Loka Jaya, where the sugar palm tree is like a gold-luminous glossiness. Fruit such as gold, also of the tree so the gold, all the sugar palm tree is changed into gold.
(See more at http://kebunaren.blogspot.com/ or in http://www.diankusumanto.com/).
Usually palm sugar was tapped to sweety water trees. Roomie palm sugar into a sweet, refreshing drink. Can also be processed into sugar. Traditionally roomie palm sugar processed into palm sugar, brown sugar or palm sugar. Now with recent technologies roomie palm sugar can be processed into crystal sugar or white caves, such as sugar from sugar cane.
And where the benefits of palm sugar?
During this palm sugar is not used to maximum efficiency. Even advantage is not that much to know. However, many farmers have been utilizing the sugar palm that grows wild in gardens or in the surrounding forest to diambl roomie, ijuk, palm leaf rib, forth and so forth. They have not estated intensively, so that maximum benefits are not yet available.
Palm sugar can tapped sweet water tree twice each day. A day can be accrued 5, 10 to 40 liters each roomie tree. However, sometimes, sugar palm tree to stop roomie, as bunches of flowers that have been issued roomie sadapan chipped out and a bunch of new disadap not ready, then there is a waiting period.
If this etated more intensive, such as Oil Palm course will provide a higher level again. From the population of 250 trees per hectare, after a period of at least productive, can disadap about 100 trees per day. If the average of 10 liters per tree only, means roomie will be around 1.000 liters / ha / day. If calculated yearly production of 360,000 liters a roomie / ha.
Roomie palm sugar is not processed into sugar. If processed into crystal sugar or sugar-white rendemnnya around 12%, meaning the land of palm sugar sehektar will generate 12% x 42,200 = 360,000 liters kg of crystal sugar per year. Try to compare with one hectare sugar cane plantation only produce sugar crystal under 10 tons / ha / season. Moreover, sugar cane, which reached the age of 16 months, so if calculate year in a live production of three quarter.
The actual figure 42.2 tons / ha / year, the figure is relatively low, because taking the average of the plants that grow naturally, has not managed intensively. Therefore, these figures are very safe. This is the advantage. So to reach 4.22 million tons of sugar, we only enough to open only 100,000 hectares. Compare with sugar cane land that is required about six times.
Is there more advantage when the sugar palm the basis of commodities PG?
Yes, sugar palm does not require a flat land, especially rice field irrigation. No! Enough sugar palm planted in the land of sloping, dry land, the land in the river near groove, in the canyon, cliffs. This means that if the sugar palm so PG commodity base will not compete with food crops acreage.
In addition, investment-based PG roomie palm sugar is not based PG semahal when raw sugar cane. This means that the PG-based sugar palm will be a PG-PG the tiny and more flexible investment with a very cheap. Thus, the unit cost of sugar at the factory level to be very competitive, PG become very profitable. Union is also benefited because the productivity per hectare sugar crystal growth is very high, far above the sugar cane laborers.
Farmers irrigated field, which is oppressed by the policies required planting sugar cane, a plant freely choose the most advantageous for himself. Can return to the rice with 2 to 3 times a year in the plant. The area of paddy field digunaka for example, 200,000 hectares of sugar cane, rice fields means that the 6 tons / ha to 3 times, planting, there will be additional production of 3.6 million tons of paddy harvest dried with rice or equivalent of about 2 million tons.
2 million tons of rice?
The figures are fantastic at the food needs will be increasingly crucial. For the food business to be very complicated, because it related to economic affairs, monetary, social and political. Yes .. crisis that occurred in 1997, originally also due to the food crisis, and then spread to the hampered-monetary, economic, political, security is ultimately up to become not guaranteed. But with that movement of sugar industry from sugar cane to sugar palm, it will be to restore the barn pamor Indonesia as the world's food.
In addition to the opening of sugar palm plantations in the region, which will turn the empty real economic impact is very knowledgeable in the area. Not to the establishment of the new PG-PG-based sugar palm, it will absorb the labor that many. In sehektarnya sugar palm plantation workers needed about 4-7 persons. So, will be opened in case of 100,000 ha, the energy that is absorbed will be between 400,000 to 700,000 workers. Yet again the need for labor in the PG-PG, which is newly built.
Sin is what we do for this?
So we realized that new?
Should we think terbelenggu by the remnants of Colonial Dutch. That have forced farmers to plant, which forces the paddy fields for rice and other crops planted immigrants, namely sugar cane that is not to be memakmurkan people, peasants Indonesia. Really, should the sugar cane farmers more prosperous. That does not happen, that the more sugar cane-based sugar industry is creating labor-farm laborers, factory workers, laborers, land for the reduced fertility, etc..
Why do not we remember the return signal Kanjeng Sunan Bonang has been appointed the sugar palm tree is a gold prospect. Why? Why?
Yes .. as a song lyric Ebiet G Ade, we ask that teeter on the grass!